Adaptation
Adaptation and Consciousness A general theory of consciousness
Intermittent Adaptation
Drug tolerance, dependence and addiction
University of Amsterdam
Papers
A general theory of consciousness I: Consciousness and adaptation.
Communicative & Integrative Biology (2020)
This paper examines how cognitive processes in living beings become conscious. Consciousness is often assumed to be a human quality only. While the basis of this paper is that consciousness is as much present in animals as it is in humans, the human form is shown to be fundamentally different. Animal consciousness expresses itself in sensory images, while human consciousness is largely verbal. Because spoken language is not an individual quality  thoughts are shared with others via communication  consciousness in humans is complex and difficult to understand. The theory proposed postulates that consciousness is an inseparable part of the body's adaptation mechanism. In adaptation to a new environmental disturbance, the outcome of the neural cognitive process  a possible solution to the problem posed by the disturbance  is transformed into a sensory image. Sensory images are essentially conscious as they are the way living creatures experience new environmental information. Through the conversion of neural cognitive activity  thoughts  about the state of the outside world into the way that world is experienced through the senses, the thoughts gain the reality that sensory images have. The translation of thoughts into sensory images makes them real and understandable which is experienced as consciousness. The theory proposed in this paper is corroborated by functional block diagrams of the processes involved in the complex regulated mechanism of adaptation and consciousness during an environmental disturbance. All functions in this mechanism and their interrelations are discussed in detail.
Intermittent Adaptation; A Mathematical model of Drug Tolerance, dependence and addiction.
In: Computational Neuroscience of Drug Addiction. New York: Springer, 2011.
A model of drug tolerance, dependence and addiction is discussed. The model is essentially much more complex than the commonly used model of homeostasis, which is demonstrated to fail in describing tolerance development to repeated drug administrations. The model assumes the development of tolerance to a repeatedly administered drug to be the result of a process of intermittently developing adaptation. The oral detection and analysis of endogenous substances is proposed to be the primary stimulus triggering the adaptation process. Anticipation and environmental cues are considered secondary stimuli, becoming primary only in dependence and addiction or when the drug administration bypasses the natural  oral  route, as is the case when drugs are administered intravenously. The model considers adaptation to the effect of a drug and adaptation to the interval between drug taking autonomously functioning adaptation processes. Simulations with the mathematical model demonstrate the model's behaviour to be consistent with important characteristics of the development of tolerance to repeatedly administered drugs: the gradual decrease in drug effect when tolerance develops, the high sensitivity to small changes in drug dose, the rebound phenomenon and the large reactions following withdrawal in dependence. It is demonstrated that tolerance development during the measurement of the doseresponse curve may cause major distortion of the curve and it is argued that the curve may only be used to indicate the response to the first administration of a drug, before tolerance has developed. It is shown that when tolerance has developed a small change in drug dose can produce a large change in magnitude of the drug effect. Simulations with the mathematical model demonstrate that a small dose of a drug may generate symptoms opposite to the action of the drug in high doses, verifying the hypothesis underlying homeopathy and hormesis. Simulations of different ways withdrawal can be accomplished, demonstrate the practical applicability of the model.
Intermittent adaptation. A theory of drug tolerance, dependence and addiction.
Pharmacopsychiatry  Review article (2009)
A mathematical model of drug tolerance and its underlying theory is presented. The model is essentially more complex than the generally used model of homeostasis, which is demonstrated to fail in describing tolerance development to repeated drug administrations. The model assumes the development of tolerance to a repeatedly administered drug to be the result of a regulated adaptive process. The oral detection and analysis of endogenous substances is proposed to be the primary stimulus for the mechanism of drug tolerance. Anticipation and environmental cues are in the model considered secondary stimuli, becoming primary only in dependence and addiction or when the drug administration bypasses the natural  oral  route, as is the case when drugs are administered intravenously. The model considers adaptation to the effect of a drug and adaptation to the interval between drug taking autonomous tolerance processes. Simulations with the mathematical model demonstrate the model’ behaviour to be consistent with important characteristics of the development of tolerance to repeatedly administered drugs: the gradual decrease in drug effect when tolerance develops, the high sensitivity to small changes in drug dose, the rebound phenomenon and the large reactions following withdrawal in dependence. Simulations of different ways withdrawal can be accomplished, demonstrate the practical applicability of the model.
Aspects of the Relationship Between Drug Dose and Drug Effect.
DoseResponse (2009)
It is generally assumed that there exists a welldefined relationship between drug dose and drug effect and that this can be expressed by a doseresponse curve. This paper argues that there is no such clear relation and that the doseresponse curve provides only limited information about the drug effect. It is demonstrated that tolerance development during the measurement of the doseresponse curve may cause major distortion of the curve and it is argued that the curve may only be used to indicate the response to the first administration of a drug, before tolerance has developed. The precise effect of a drug on an individual depends on the dynamic relation between several variables, particularly the level of tolerance, the dose anticipated by the organism and the actual drug dose. It is shown that when tolerance has developed a small change in drug dose can produce a large change in magnitude of the drug effect. Simulations with the mathematical model demonstrate that a small dose of a drug may generate symptoms opposite to the action of the drug in high doses, verifying the hypothesis underlying homeopathy and hormesis.
A Theory of Drug Tolerance and Dependence I: A conceptual analysis.
Journal of Theoretical Biology (2004)
A mathematical model of drug tolerance and its underlying theory is presented. The model extends a first approach, published previously. The model is essentially more complex than the generally used model of homeostasis, which is demonstrated to fail in describing tolerance development to repeated drug administrations. The model assumes the development of tolerance to a repeatedly administered drug to be the result of a regulated adaptive process. The oral detection and analysis of exogenous substances is proposed to be the primary stimulus for the mechanism of drug tolerance. Anticipation and environmental cues are in the model considered secondary stimuli, becoming primary only in dependence and addiction or when the drug administration bypasses the naturaloralroute, as is the case when drugs are administered intravenously. The model considers adaptation to the effect of a drug and adaptation to the interval between drug taking autonomous tolerance processes. Simulations with the mathematical model demonstrate the model’s behavior to be consistent with important characteristics of the development of tolerance to repeatedly administered drugs: the gradual decrease in drug effect when tolerance develops, the high sensitivity to small changes in drug dose, the rebound phenomenon and the large reactions following withdrawal in dependence. The mathematical model verifies the proposed theory and provides a basis for the implementation of mathematical models of specific physiological processes. In addition, it establishes a relation between the drug dose at any moment, and the resulting drug effect and relates the magnitude of the reactions following withdrawal to the rate of tolerance and other parameters involved in the tolerance process. The present paper analyses the concept behind the model. The next paper discusses the mathematical model.
A Theory of Drug Tolerance and Dependence II: The mathematical model.
Journal of Theoretical Biology (2004)
The preceding paper presented a model of drug tolerance and dependence. The model assumes the development of tolerance to a repeatedly administered drug to be the result of a regulated adaptive process. The oral detection and analysis of exogenous substances is proposed to be the primary stimulus for the mechanism of drug tolerance. Anticipation and environmental cues are in the model considered secondary stimuli, becoming primary in dependence and addiction or when the drug administration bypasses the natural  oral  route, as is the case when drugs are administered intravenously. The model considers adaptation to the effect of a drug and adaptation to the interval between drug taking autonomous tolerance processes. Simulations with the mathematical model demonstrate the model’s behaviour to be consistent with important characteristics of the development of tolerance to repeatedly administered drugs: the gradual decrease in drug effect when tolerance develops, the high sensitivity to small changes in drug dose, the rebound phenomenon and the large reactions following withdrawal in dependence. The present paper discusses the mathematical model in terms of its design. The model is a nonlinear, learning feedback system, fully satisfying control theoretical principles. It accepts any form of the stimulus  the drug intake  and describes how the physiological processes involved affect the distribution of the drug through the body and the stability of the regulation loop. The mathematical model verifies the proposed theory and provides a basis for the implementation of mathematical models of specific physiological processes.
Preliminary results of simulations with an improved mathematical model of drug tolerance.
Journal of Theoretical Biology (1999)
Simulations with a mathematical model of drug tolerance of different ways withdrawal in addiction can be achieved are presented. The outcome of the simulations suggest that there are several ways in which drug withdrawal can be made considerably less demanding for the patient than the usual abrupt withdrawal or the slow tapering off of the drug dose.
A mathematical model of the hsp70 regulation in the cell.
International Journal of Hyperthermia (1998)
A mathematical model of the regulation process of the heat shock protein hsp70 in the cell is presented. The model describes the damaging effect of elevated temperature on proteins; the interaction of free hsp70 with injured proteins and its chaperone role in nascent protein translation; the relation between the amount of free hsp70 and the formation of the activated trimer form of the heat shock factor protein (HSF); the binding of activated HSF with the heat shock elements on the DNA; the transcription of mRNA of hsp70 and the synthesis of hsp70. The reaction of the model to a temporal rise in temperature shows an initial decline and a subsequent sharp rise to an ultimately increased level of free hsp70 in the cell. The response of the model to both a single and two consecutive heat shocks appears to closely resemble experimental data on hsp70 synthesis. This general agreement demonstrates the structure of the model to be sound and suitable as a basis for further modelling the complex tolerance mechanism of the cell.
An approach to the modelling of the tolerance mechanism in the drug
effect. Part I: The drug effect as a disturbance of regulations.
Journal of Theoretical Biology (1987)
It is argued that the disturbing effects of drugs upon
regulations in the organism are an important factor in the total
drug effect and it is made plausible that the decrease of the
drug effect after prolonged or repeated administration of the
drug is caused by the adaptation of the involved regulations
to the presence of the drug, the adaptive process being selective
for the drug in question. A mathematical model based on these
assumptions is developed taking into account the specific behaviour
of regulated processes. The functioning of the model is investigated
by means of computer simulations. The behaviour of the model appears
to be well in accordance with the phenomenon of drug tolerance as
described in the literature.
An approach to the modelling of the tolerance mechanism in the drug effect. Part II: On the implications of compensatory regulations.
Journal of Theoretical Biology (1988)
The behaviour of a previously published mathematical model of drug tolerance was studied with respect to the doseresponse relation, the drug effect in dependent and nondependent subjects and withdrawal symptoms. Simulations with the model demonstrate the model to be highly sensitive to sudden changes in drug dose. Dependent on the open loop gain of the adaptive mechanism, a decrease in drug dose might result in an effect opposite to the common drug effect. The behaviour of the model suggests the degree of drug dependence in an addicted subject to depend on the extent to which nonsomatic factors are involved in the process of initiation of the adaptive mechanisms.
